He found that the perceptual errors and self-deceptions of top managers are especially potent, since they can block actions proposed by their subordinates. Also, these managers tend to overlook bad news and perceived events incorrectly.
Starbuck wrote, "Although their high statuses often persuade them that they have more expertise than other people, their expertise tends to be out-of-date. They have strong vested interests, and they know they will catch the blame if current policies and actions prove wrong."
Counteracting the accumulated weight of senior managers, experts and organizational inertia is no easy task. But if you're looking for organizational change, or looking to hire people who can "unlearn" effectively, there's one simple clue to consider: doubt.